January 2009

Hybrid Car Batteries Technology Counterpoint

If you read my “Hybrid Cars Counterpoint” article you noticed it said little about the hybrid car batteries. In part that is because they are made, and the technology is, outside the U.S. Since then there have been many changes, and it now appears that the car battery is a priority for the U.S.. All car manufacturers are now coalescing around hybridization, and the technology and cost for the battery. The announcements of suppliers and developers are being made at the North American Auto Show in Detroit.

Batteries use the following technologies for specific applications:

1.   Nickel-Cadmium

Conventional car usage, low energy capacity, 3-5 yr life, contains toxic lead

2. Nickel Metal-Hydride (NiMH)

Current Hybrid car usage, higher energy capcaity, 5-8 yr life, expensive due to nickel

3. Lithium Ion

For small equipment, medium energy capacity, cheaper, plugin required

This battery guide shows the present Nickel-Metal Hydride batteries for the Toyota Prius, Toyota Highlander, Ford Escape, Honda Insight, and Saturn Vue.

There is not one Lithium Ion battery, but several formulations for the electrodes compete:

1. Cobalt Dioxide is most popular for small cells, but is prone to fire.

2. Nickle-cobalt-maganese (NCM) is easier to make, and cheaper, but has a shorter life.

3. Nickle-cobalt aluminum (NCA) is similar to NCM.

4. Manganese oxide spinel (MnO) offers high power, low cost, but lower energy density.

5. Iron phosphate (FePo) is inexpensive, has stability and safety, but requires more cells.

Battery design must consider that total energy determines the car’s electric range, while power determines its acceleration.

Present Hybrid car batteries are in demand. It appears the three main suppliers are Panasonic and Sanyo in Japan, and U.S. based Cobasys.

As was previously noted the present Nickel-Metal Hydride battery is expensive and is the predominate factor for the Hybrid car not being able to compete in the market place. Because of this the market place has decided to develop a cheaper battery-a new lithium battery. This article, “Are the Hybrid Cars Here to stay?”, gives a history of the hybrid cars and the hybrid batteries.

The Lithium-ion systems listed above are now in the experimentation stage by manufacturers. They offer extremely low internal resistance, deliver high load currents, and accept rapid change. The big drawback of these batteries are their durability or life, cost, safety, and availability. Currently Toyota, Honda, and Ford are leading in Hybrid  car technology. Presently, the biggest lithium-ion battery manufacturers are Sony in Japan, Samsung in South Korea, and Johnson Controls in the U.S.

A group of U.S. battery companies just teamed up to boost American manufacturing of Lithium-ion batteries. These aim to compete with the Asian companies that currently dominate the lithium-ion battery market.

Johnson Controls unveiled its re3 concept plug-in hybrid electric vehicle at the North American Auto Show in Detroit. Johnson Controls is a maker of the Lithium-ion battery and has just jointed up with Saft, a French venture partner, to make Lithium-ion batteries for Hybrid commercial trucks.

The latest development that was announced is that “Johnson gets Ford hybrid deal.”

Other articles on new technology and manufacturers developing the lithium-ion battery are;

MIT powers up new battery for Hybrid cars. (Lithium Nickle Manganese Oxide)

Mercedes Hybrid Car Battery breakthrough “Groundbreaking”

China’s BYD touts battery technology

Lithium Batteries for Hydrid Cars (GM)

In conclusion, the present battery used in Hybrid cars is an expensive Nickel-metal-hydroxide (NiMH) battery. The hope for the future is the development of a cheaper Lithium-ion battery (see above formulations).


Toenail Fungus Counterpoint

I have researched, consulted and studied several toenail fungus treatments. The fungus houses itself within the nail bed making it difficult to reach and therefore difficult to kill. Once affected, nails must be treated for a substantial period of time (months to years) to obtain a cure. Oral medications are available, but they are expensive, require physician blood testing maintenance, and may have side effects to body organs. Topical solutions are the safest, but they may be expensive, and tryout is required to determine their effectiveness. Below are listed some articles researched:

Toenail Fungus Warning-Toenail Fungus Cures explained; three toenail treatments considered (ZetaClear, Nail-Rx, Nail Fungus) with ZetaClear recommended.

Fungisil treatment-how it works.

What is the best nail fungus treatment available today? Fungisil, ZetaClear, Nail Rx, MedPure, Pedi-Cure

How can I cure toenail fungus? Use saltwater bathing and ZetaClear topical solution.

Toenail Fungus photos, stories, prevention, and information.

Nail Fungus-MayoClinic.com.

Toenail fungus home remedies.

Toenail fungus-Senior Health.

Toenail fungus pictures.

I also researched the Aetna InteliHealth website and talked to several professionals. They felt the toenail fungus would take a lengthy time period, be expensive, and would stand a good chance of not being successful, or could reoccur. I continued my research and found some home remedies listed below:

Listerine for Toenail Fungus-The People’s Pharmacy.

Listerine and Vinegar Fight Nail Fungus-The People’s Pharmacy.

Listerine Toenail Fungus Treatment.

Grandma’s Wisdom-Will Vinegar Treat Toenail Fungus?

Listerine Toenail Fungus Cure Tips.

I finally tried the 50/50 Vinegar/Listerine mixture and applied it by immersing my toes in it while scrubbing with a toothbrush. I noticed in two weeks time that my toenails were clearing up, and showing improvement. After two months the toenails are showing new growth without the thick fungus. The mixture is reusable, and is replaced about every two weeks dependent on the change in color. I’m slowly trimming away the fungus. At this point the treatment will take at least as long as it takes my toenails to fully grow out. Needless to say, I am satisfied with this treatment for the moment.